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By R. G. Frey, Christopher Heath Wellman

It is a rather first-class number of articles on all types of truly fascinating issues in utilized ethics. a person who thinks that educational philosophers are not "practical" or are not fascinated by "real global" matters and difficulties should still look at this booklet. it really is simply choked with fascinating and critical stuff. the entire entries i have learn are particularly transparent and good written and supply an excellent advent to the subject. i'm hoping it will definitely comes out in paperback so it is more straightforward to buy!

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Do we have a moral obligation not to harm members of any species? Or is the fact that an action would harm another person relevant to its being wrong in a way that harm to other species is not? Here again we cannot answer this question without taking a stand on meta-ethical issues concerning what morality and moral obligation are if only implicitly If we understand moral questions broadly enough then it may seem that harm is harm and is no less morally relevant whether the being harmed is a person or a snail darter If however we think of morality as a system of reciprocity or mutual accountability where norms of right and wrong mediate a moral community of free and equal moral persons then harm to other persons will seem to have an intrinsic moral relevance that harm to other species does not For then what is morally wrong will be what one can be held accountable by others for doing in accordance with norms that must in some sense be acceptable to all from a perspective of equality So viewed harm to persons is not simply harm to members of a certain species but harm to a member of the moral community to whom norms of right and wrong must be justifiable This is only one example of how questions of meta-ethics are implicitly involved in issues of normative ethical theory and therefore in case ethics Ultimately we have no alternative but to pursue philosophical ethics, that is to attempt to work out a comprehensive outlook that integrates normative ethics and meta-ethics (Darwall 1998) Contractarianism/Contractualism We can turn now to a review of different normative theories and begin with one that can be grounded in the meta-ethical theory of morality as reciprocity or mutual accountability just mentioned This is the idea that whether an action is right or wrong depends on whether it accords with or violates principles that would be the object of an agreement contract or choice made under certain conditions by members of the moral community The general idea can be developed in a variety of ways depending on how the choice or agreement the parties who make it and the conditions under which it is made are characterized One broad distinction is between contractarianism, under which the choice of moral principles is self-interested and contractualism, which grounds it in a moral ideal of reciprocity reasonableness or fairness It may seem strange to think that moral principles can in any respect be agreed upon or chosen How can a moral proposition be made true by any choice or agreement?

Do we have a moral obligation not to harm members of any species? Or is the fact that an action would harm another person relevant to its being wrong in a way that harm to other species is not? Here again we cannot answer this question without taking a stand on meta-ethical issues concerning what morality and moral obligation are if only implicitly If we understand moral questions broadly enough then it may seem that harm is harm and is no less morally relevant whether the being harmed is a person or a snail darter If however we think of morality as a system of reciprocity or mutual accountability where norms of right and wrong mediate a moral community of free and equal moral persons then harm to other persons will seem to have an intrinsic moral relevance that harm to other species does not For then what is morally wrong will be what one can be held accountable by others for doing in accordance with norms that must in some sense be acceptable to all from a perspective of equality So viewed harm to persons is not simply harm to members of a certain species but harm to a member of the moral community to whom norms of right and wrong must be justifiable This is only one example of how questions of meta-ethics are implicitly involved in issues of normative ethical theory and therefore in case ethics Ultimately we have no alternative but to pursue philosophical ethics, that is to attempt to work out a comprehensive outlook that integrates normative ethics and meta-ethics (Darwall 1998) Contractarianism/Contractualism We can turn now to a review of different normative theories and begin with one that can be grounded in the meta-ethical theory of morality as reciprocity or mutual accountability just mentioned This is the idea that whether an action is right or wrong depends on whether it accords with or violates principles that would be the object of an agreement contract or choice made under certain conditions by members of the moral community The general idea can be developed in a variety of ways depending on how the choice or agreement the parties who make it and the conditions under which it is made are characterized One broad distinction is between contractarianism, under which the choice of moral principles is self-interested and contractualism, which grounds it in a moral ideal of reciprocity reasonableness or fairness It may seem strange to think that moral principles can in any respect be agreed upon or chosen How can a moral proposition be made true by any choice or agreement?

H is where the idea of an agreement or contract enters the contractarian picture Taking as a benchmark the "no agreement" point in which all regard themselves as bound by nothing but their own interests and values contractarians treat the ti f hih i i l tll ll b d b th lti t t i l b i i bl f thi b h k i hih ll h t i t t i i t tll d t i i l t h b idi th " t" it bt h diffi i t t i tl hih i i l tll d (Gthi 1986) H f b l th ltt i i l t t th difft titi t ill d d h h th t t l if th i agreement Consider for example what principle of mutual aid would be agreed to If those with fewer resources and greater vulnerabilities have more to lose from the lack of agreement than those with greater resources and fewer vulnerabilities then t i l b i i l d t l i i l f t l id th ld lt if l b l th ith l Thi th i t t i i ' b i f k f i li T k t l bliti i ifi th b l i t i f ih d ti i d i lbl i h t thik b t ht t i i l f dli ith th i ld lt f titi f 23 STEPHEN L DARWALL th " t" it i hih h t t t t t d it it ests and values In acting on the principles that would be agreed however the parties are not simply promoting their interests; they are cooperating Cooperation promotes everyone's advantage but as in the Prisoner's Dilemma it does so by ii idiidl t f ti thi i t t E h ld f h i h i h th if b i t b th bt h t i d t d it t i d b i i l f ti tht ld t i l l t Contractualism Contractualism has a similar structure It too understands principles of right con duct as the object of a rational agreement But whereas contractarianism takes l i i l t lt f t i l b i i t t l i th t i i l db lidl f l t tht ld b i i t t ith b i i f d t l t f iti F t t l i ' it f i th bl ith t t i i i t h t it t tht i d i i d l h i fft l l i t th th ld h f th d l f ti O t h i th l tht lt b b gaining from that position will have no moral force But why assume that people have such a moral claim?

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