By Frederick Copleston
Conceived initially as a significant presentation of the advance of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest objective of its writer to common acclaim because the top heritage of philosophy in English.
Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of tremendous erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the lifestyles of God and the potential of metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient vitamin of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with so much of history's nice thinkers was once lowered to simplistic caricatures. Copleston got down to redress the incorrect through writing a whole heritage of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and highbrow pleasure -- and one who offers complete position to every philosopher, proposing his concept in a fantastically rounded demeanour and exhibiting his hyperlinks to those that went ahead of and to people who got here after him.
The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a heritage of philosophy that's not going ever to be exceeded. suggestion journal summed up the final contract between students and scholars alike whilst it reviewed Copleston's A heritage of Philosophy as "broad-minded and target, finished and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we can't suggest [it] too highly."
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Additional resources for A History of Philosophy, Volume 8: Modern Philosophy: Empiricism, Idealism, and Pragmatism in Britain and America
But the reason for the attack is clear enough. If Mackintosh had expounded an ethical theory quite different from that of the Benthamites, the Kantian ethics for example, Mill would presumably not have been so indignant. As it was, Mackintosh's crime in Mill's eyes was to have adulterated the pure milk of Benthamism by adding to it the moral sense theory, derived from Hutcheson and to a certain extent from the Scottish School, a theory which Bentham had decisively rejected. Although Mackintosh accepted utility as the criterion for 1 Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind, n, p.
In his period of dejection the utilitarian philosophy, in which he had been indoctrinated by his father, lost its charms for him. He did not indeed abandon it. But he came to two conclusions. First, happiness is not attained by seeking it directly. One finds it by striving after some goal or ideal other than one's own happiness or pleasure. Secondly, analytic thought needs to be complemented by a cultivation of the feelings, an aspect of human nature which Bentham had mistrusted. This meant in part that Mill began to find some meaning in poetry and art.
In any case it was Ricardo's work which became the classical statement of Benthamite economics. In the view of his disciple J. R. McCulloch (1789-1864) Ricardo's great service was to state the fundamental theorem of the science of value. This was to the effect that in a free market the value of commodities is determined by the amount of labour required for their production. In other words, value is crystallized labour. Now, if this theory were true, it would appear to follow that the money obtained from the sale of commodities belongs rightfully to those whose labour produced the commodities in question.