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By Peter Dronke

This can be the 1st entire research of the philosophical achievements of twelfth-century Western Europe. it's the collaboration of fifteen students whose targeted survey makes obtainable the highbrow preoccupations of the interval, with all texts mentioned in English translation all through. After a dialogue of the cultural context of twelfth-century hypothesis, and a few of the most streams of suggestion - Platonic, Stoic, and Arabic - that quickened it, comes a characterisation of the recent difficulties and views of the interval, in medical inquiry, speculative grammar, and common sense. this can be through a better exam of the detailed beneficial properties of a few of the main leading edge thinkers of the time, from Anselm and Abelard to the varsity of Chartres. a last part exhibits the impression of newly recovered works of Aristotle within the twelfth-century West.

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3, vi (1965) 389-422, at pp. 410-13, repr. in Dronke's The Medieval Poet and His World (Rome 1984), pp. 463—6; Dronkc 1969, pp. 134—7. 50 De Bruyne 1946, 11 328-34; Jeauneau i960, pp. 12-16; M. de Gandillac, 'Le platonisme au xiie et au xiiie siecles', in Association Guillaume Bude. Congres de Tours et de Poitiers, 1953 (Paris 1954), p. 273. 51 Dronke 1974, pp. 32-47. 38 Background ordained vehicle of revelation, serving for pagan philosophers the function of the biblical lex scripta for the Jews.

He doubtless saw the value of images as enhanced by the Incarnation, a perfect manifestation of the divine in natural form, and there are resemblances between his discussion of philosophical imagery and the role assigned to symbols and enigmata in the thought of the pseudo-Dionysius. 51 There can be no precise account of such resemblances, for no twelfthcentury thinker seems to have been drawn to develop a sustained comparison between the philosophical approach to imagery and the hermeneutics associated with religious symbolism.

27 De institutione arithmetica, ed. Gottfried Friedlein (Leipzig 1867), pp. 9-10: 'Hoc igitur illud quadruvium est, quo his viandum sit, quibus excellentior animus a nobiscum procreatis sensibus ad intelligentiae certiora perducitur. ' Philosophy, cosmology and the Renaissance 31 correspondence between the system of the Liberal Arts, the cohaerentia artium, and the order of the universe which fired the twelfth century's interest in natural science, medicine and astrology. At the same time the Neoplatonic associations of the 'eye of the mind (oculus animi)' invited spiritual interpretation.

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