Download Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials by John Newman, B S Choo PDF

By John Newman, B S Choo

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Extra info for Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials (Advanced Concrete Technology Set)

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5 5 Hydrated cement paste Volume % 3 days 28 days 365 days Unreacted C3S C2S C3A C4AF 18 7 4 5 8 5 0 5 5 2 0 2 Hydrates Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] C–S–H gel Monosulfate (C3A·CaSo4·12H2O Ettringite (C3A·3CaSO4·32H2O) 13 39 4 11 18 47 16 0 18 54 20 0 such as setting time and development of compressive strength. They also describe the test procedures to be used to determine cement composition and cement properties. Although it is now rather out of date, particularly in relation to the standards in place in European countries, the publication by Cembureau, (1991) provides a useful review of cement types produced around the world.

The sample of raw meal, clinker or cement is inserted in the analyser, either in the form of a pressed disc of finely ground material or after fusing into a glass bead. In the analyser, the specimen is irradiated with X-rays, which cause secondary radiation to be emitted from the sample. Each chemical element present emits radiation of a specific frequency, and the intensity of the radiation is proportional to the quantity of that element present in the sample. All UK cement plants (and all modern cement plants around the world) are equipped with an X-ray fluorescence analyser and use the technique to determine and control the levels of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, K2O, Na2O, SO3 and Cl in cement raw meal and clinker.

9 summarizes the range of cement compositions permitted by EN 197-1. While these are ‘common cements’ they are not all available in all CEN member countries. For example, Portland burnt shale cement requires a particular shale type, which is only found in southern Germany. 60). g. g. maximum SO3, MgO, loss on ignition (LOI), insoluble residue (IR)) • conformity criteria to demonstrate compliance with EN 197-1. 10 summarizes the compositional requirements for the constituents of EN 197-1 cements.

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