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By I Prigogine

Advances in Chemical Physics, quantity 127 covers fresh advances on the leading edge of analysis relative to chemical physics. The sequence, Advances in Chemical Physics, presents a discussion board for serious, authoritative reviews of advances in each region of the self-discipline.

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G. of the crystal unit cell),f are the local field factors, ali are the direction cosines of the molecular frame of reference xyz with respect to the crystal frame X YZ (often denoted 123) and the sum is over all molecules within the volume V. 4 is particularly important. In either second-order or third-order case it may happen that molecules which themselves have high intrinsic nonlinearities are arranged in the solid state so that, within the summation of coefficients over neighbouring molecules, the major components from different molecules cancel each other out.

SINGLE CRYSTALS There have been many studies of nonlinear optical organic single crystals reported over the past few years, and these have been concerned almost exclusively with second-order processes. 6. ) SINGLE CRYSTALS I I ----------------------------------------------~ polydiacetylenes, and these will be described in a following section on polymeric materials. Single crystals have a number of advantages as a method of aggregating the nonlinear molecules. Firstly, a high density of active molecules can be achieved, in contrast to the polymeric or Langmuir-Blodgett systems described below.

Another organic molecule with no significant conjugation is L-arganine phosphate monohydrate (LAP). , 1989), but once again its nonlinearity is too low to make it a serious contender for laser diode applications. Preliminary results on a number of more conjugated molecules have recently appeared in the literature. , 1990), which is transparent down to 430 nm, and has an effective nonlinear optical coefficient X(Z) of about 11 pm V - I. There remains much work to be done to produce fully characterized crystals suitable for use in this demanding application.

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