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By Richard E. Lenski (auth.), K. C. Marshall (eds.)

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DeBach (1971) reports that only about one-quarter of introduced parasites and predators have become established, and of these only about one-sixth (or 4% of the total) have exerted significant control over the target population. ] We may similarly expect that only a small fraction of phage that can infect a bacterium in vitro would exert significant control in vivo. 2 that the coevolutionary potential of phage appears often to be less than that of their bacterial hosts; that is, there exist bacterial mutants resistant to phage for which there do not exist corresponding host-range phage mutants.

E. Lenski medium, to the nutritional status of the bacterial hosts, or to the structure of the physical environment. Phage rely on diffusion by random Brownian motion to encounter bacteria, and diffusion is limited by high viscosity. Any colloidal matter that bound phage would further limit adsorption. Roper and Marshall (1974) have demonstrated that sensitive bacteria are protected from phage in the presence of organic sediment, because phage and/or bacteria are adsorbed to the sediment and prevented from direct contact with one another.

The following differential equations relate the concentrations of resource (C), uninfected bacteria (S), infected bacteria (1), and free phage (P): dCjdt dSj dt dIjdt dPjdt = (Co - C)w-~Sif;Cj(K + C) = Sif;Cj(K + C) - aSP - wS = aSP - e-""aS'P - wI = fJe-TWaS'P - aSP - wP (1) (2) (3) (4) S' and pI are the concentrations of uninfected bacteria and free phage, respectively, at time t - T, and e- TW is the fraction of bacteria infected at time t - T that has not washed out of the habitat before lysing.

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