Download Advances in Porous Media, Vol. 3 by M. Yavuz Corapcioglu PDF

By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

This e-book is the 3rd quantity of a sequence: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our goal is to offer in-depth evaluate papers that supply entire assurance to the sphere of delivery in porous media. This sequence treats delivery phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. hence, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of rules and purposes in a single region to others, slicing throughout conventional obstacles. the target of every bankruptcy is to check the paintings performed on a particular subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental experiences. The individuals of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from a number of backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are geared toward all scientists and engineers in numerous assorted fields serious about the basics and functions of techniques in porous media.

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Two points regarding temperature for biodegradation modeling in the subsurface are important. First, because the rates of biodegradation are dependent on temperature, caution must be used in extrapolating results of biodegradation experiments carried out at typical laboratory temperatures to actual biodegradation in the subsurface. Not only are reaction rates slower at lower temperatures, but the Arrehenius relation may not hold below temperatures of Iff'C, making predictions of reaction rates at lower temperatures difficult (Focht, 1988).

1988) reported studies in which adsorption increased or decreased biodegradation and postulated that sorption may increase biodegradation under ohgotrophic (nutrient poor) conditions by concentrating nutrients, but may decrease biodegradation under nutrient-rich conditions by competing with microorganisms for substrate. Simulations of BTEX degradation performed by Borden and Bedient (1986) indicated that adsorption may enhance biodegradation by allowing oxygen to continuously move into the retarded contaminant plume.

1. Mass balance equations One mass balance equation can be written for each constituent in each phase. jr = RT + rt (i) dt where a is the phase; / is the component; 6« is the volumetric content of phase alpha (volume of phase a/total volume); p^ is the density of phase alpha (M/L^); (of is the mass fraction of species / in phase alpha; v"" is the average linear velocity of phase alpha relative to the solid phase (L/T); Jf is the non-advective flux of species / in the a phase (M/L^T); Rf is the rate of exchange of mass of species / due to interphase diffusion and/or phase change (M/L^T); rf is the rate of creation of species / in phase a (M/L^T).

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