By Martin A Moskowitz

Although ordinary in nature, this publication bargains with basic matters in arithmetic вЂ” quantity, algebra, geometry (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean) and topology. those topics, on a sophisticated point, are an identical ones with which a lot of present mathematical examine is anxious and have been themselves learn themes of prior classes. the fabric is particularly compatible either for complicated highschool scholars and for students drawn to easy arithmetic from a better perspective. it is going to even be very valuable to highschool academics looking an outline in their material.

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**Example text**

By solving for c and a we have c = x2 + y2 and a = x2 — y2, and so b = 2xy. 17. -, an) contains all the primes that are involved in all aj's with the minimal exponent. ,an) =p\lpe22 •••pekk where ej = mm(eji:ej2,---ejn). Similarly the prime factorization of the 1cm is given by taking the maximal exponent. We can now prove the following generalization of the fact that y/2 is irrational. 32 Chapter 1 What is a Number? 18. Unless n £ Z + is a perfect square, \fn is irrational. Conversely, of course, ifn£ Z + is a perfect square, then y/n is rational.

22 Chapter 1 What is a Number? For a real number a, or indeed an element in any ordered field, we now define \a\ to be a, if a > 0 and — a otherwise. Then we have the following properties which the reader is asked to verify as an exercise. In this connection observe that for any x € R, \x\ > x, \x\2 = x2 and that if x and y > 0, then x < y if and only if x2 < y2. 1. \a\ > 0 . 2. \a\ = 0 only if a = 0. 3. For all a, be R, |ab| = \a\ • \b\. 4. For all a,b € R, |a + 6| < |a| + |6|. (This last item is called the triangle inequality).

If a and b > 0, then there is some n £ Z such that na > b. (In other words, no matter how small a > 0 is, nor how big b is, some multiple of a is bigger than b). This is called the Archimedian property. It holds because otherwise for all n S Z we would have 0 < na < b. Since by the above a"1 > 0, multiplying we would get 0 < n < -, a contradiction since the positive integers move infinitely to the right. 6. Any real number can be approximated to any desired degree of accuracy by rational numbers.