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By Daan Lenstra, Willem van Haeringen (auth.), Willem van Haeringen, Daan Lenstra (eds.)

This publication provides an account of a few contemporary advancements in diverse subfields of study, optics and micro--electronics. The prime precept in featuring them jointly in a single ebook is the notable similarity among numerous notions in those learn parts. We point out during this recognize tunneling, quantum interference and localization, that are very important options in quantummechanics and extra in particular in condensed topic physics. Miniaturization in strong kingdom engineering has ended in new phenomena during which those thoughts play their major roles. because it is the wave personality of electrons that's strongly emphasised in those phenomena one's cognizance is sort of evidently directed to the sector of optics within which the above quantum-mechanical notions all appear to have their direct classical wavemechanical opposite numbers. either micro--electronics and optics were and nonetheless are in a style of intensifying task. the probabilities to technically "translate" units constructed inside one examine box to related units within the different box are strongly expanding. This opens, between different issues, a door resulting in "quantummechanics" on a macroscopic scale with obvious mild lower than fairly simply available experimental stipulations, or to "wave optics II within the area of reliable country physics. considering when it comes to analogies is necessary anyways, however it is mainly the cross-fertilization among optics and micro--electronics which based on the editors will bring about deepened insights and a brand new kind of technology.

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1 (Gordon and Breach, New York, London, 1963). W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastics Methods (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1983). H. Haken, Neural and Synergetics Computers, ed. H. Haken (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1988). T. Kohonen, Self-Organization and Associative Memory (Springer, Berlin, 1987). A. Fuchs and H. Haken, Pattern Recognition and Associative Memory as Dynamical Processes in a Synergetic System I+II, Erratum; BioI. Cybern. 60 (1988) 17-22, 107-109, 476. H. G.

World, 1 October (1988) 45. A. Genack and J. Drake (preprint). M. Kaveh is with Bar-Ilan University, Department of Physics, Ramat-Gan 52100, Israel. SYNERGETICS AS A THEORY OF ANALOGOUS BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEMS H. Haken This article deals with nonlinear devices in optics and micro-electronics and unearths the roots of their analogous behavior. At the microscopic level, elementary excitations such as photons, electrons, holes, Cooper-pairs, polaritons, etc. may be produced. When their number increases, cooperative nonlinear effects occur.

23) The general solutions of (23) can be written in the form Wj (24) = exp(Ajt)Vj , where in the absence of degeneracies Vj is time-independent and in the other case may contain a finite number of powers of t. We introduce the vectors Vj as a new basis and make the hypothesis q = qo + E (j (t) Vj . (25) For what follows we shall distinguish between the unstable modes where j = u, Re Aj ~ 0, (26) and the stable modes where j = s, Re Aj < o. HAKEN where we made the distinction (26) and (27). As can be shown for all devices so far known which use an instability, only very few or only one variables eu appear, while most of the variables belong to the class of stable modes.

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