By M. Muskat
Copyright 1937, by means of the McGraw-Hill booklet corporation, Inc. moment Printing by means of Permission of McGraw-Hill publication corporation, Inc. Lithoprinted by way of Edwards Borthers, Inc. The Maple Press corporation.
J. W. Edwards, Inc. 1946.
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Extra resources for The Flow of Homogenous Fluids Through Porous Media
Consider the results of calculation of annual river runoff volumes for the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea (Table 3). At 21 ka, the total river runoff to the Caspian Sea (calculated by “successful” models) was substantially lower (–50%) compared to today. The relative contribution of Volga River runoff has a value of 72%. These facts are in accordance with the observational data. Taking into account that the second term in Equation 3 is equal to zero, and the value Δe/e0 can be estimated as small relative to the first term in Equation 2, we can estimate the relative decrease in Caspian Sea area as 50%, which means a substantial drop in level (~50 m).
The map in Figure 8B allows one to calculate an annual volume of surface runoff for the period of large river activity and to compare it with recent characteristics (Table 6). During the pre– Oldest Dryas warming, the Don River supplied about four times the present-day water volume, and the Dnieper River supplied about three times the volume. If we apply these proportions to other rivers, the total annual surface runoff from the East European part of the Black Sea basin can be estimated at ~365 km3.
Thus, there is no clear understanding about the source of “additional” water volume necessary to elevate the level of the Caspian Sea to a point that would permit overflow into the Black Sea. , Geology and Geoarchaeology of the Black Sea Region: Beyond the Flood Hypothesis: Geological Society of America Special Paper 473, p. 2473(02). org. © 2011 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved. 27 28 Kislov and Toropov INTRODUCTION The targets of our exploration are the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea (including the Sea of Azov).